Wednesday, March 31, 2021

A Different Lens on ESGs: Value of Synergies with the SDGs

 Article first appear in allafrica.com: Environment, Social & Governance (ESG) Business Pillars - Synergies with the UN SDGs - By Dr. Robin Renee Sanders, CEO-FEEEDS

Over the last two decades, the framework known as Environment, Social and Governance (ESGs) has gained prominence as a basis for measuring a company’s efforts toward sustainability, socially responsibility (values), and acceptability as a set of metrics to gauge operations, investment, shareholder decisions, and inclusion in capital market listings. ESG pillars first began to take shape in 2004-2005, stemming from thought-provoking reports like the “Who Cares Wins,” by  Ivo Knoepfel, connecting financial markets to a changing world, and advocacy by the late UN Secretary General Kofi Annan encouraging CEOs of financial institutions to view ESGs as having a positive impact on capital markets. These efforts led to such  important related programs as the New York Stock Exchange’s 2006 Principles for Responsible Investment (PRI), and the Sustainable Stock Exchange Initiative (SSEI).

Credit: Michelle Patrick Photography,LLC 

Fast forward to today. The recognition, and visibility of ESGs, as well as the importance of the sustainability elements therein, have been expounded on extensively in a variety of documents from the UN Global Compact, business advisory reports (e.g. PWC, Deloitte), articles (Forbes), fora such as  World Economic Forum ESG meetings, and the World Bank, including its new ESG portal.

The ESGs have grown to be more or less reflective of certain actions under each of the E, S & G Pillars, which FEEEDS sees as being synergistically connected to the UN SDGs. This connecting allows for the E, S & G Pillars to be both measurable, and also thematic related to the SDGs:

Environment: For FEEEDS, this is the Climate Change Thematic Pillar, as it incorporates many of the key climate change sub issues such as waste management, reduction in pollution and carbon emissions, incorporating renewables, and natural resource protection that companies are addressing.

Social: We view as the Humankind or Human Protection Thematic Pillar, given this is where the treatment of personnel, relationships with outside stakeholders, communities, and consumers come in, including issues of human capital, good labor practices, and product liability.

Governance: Is the Inward-Looking Thematic Pillar, meaning how well a company is managing itself from its governing board (including board diversity), to transparency on financials, taxes, investments, risks and ethics.

Given the importance of the ESG Pillars to businesses and organizations today, adding a thematic lens to the measurable metrics can be useful. Moreover, it helps connect ESGs synergistically with the globally-agreed upon UN Sustainable Development Goals (UN SDGs), running from 2015-2030, which seeks to improve the overall well-being of mankind. Historically, this ESG-SDG discussion makes even more sense if one thinks back to the early 2000s when the ESGs were being bandied about. This was just after the creation of the 2000-2015 UN Millennium Development Goals, the first global iteration of measuring mankind’s well-being -- a precursor to the current SDGs.

Credit: Елена Верхотурова 


The SDGs, with its 17 goals (and 169 subsections) encourages and measures a country’s (and by extension the world’s) concerted efforts to improving mankind’s well-being by addressing extreme poverty, development shortcomings in education, food security, health and joblessness, particularly for women and children. The SDGs and their progress are analyzed by a wide variety of organizations. This includes the UN SDG 2020 Report & Progress Tracker, the latter highlighting COVID’s role in unfortunately pushing 71 million people back into poverty, the largest poverty rise since 1998; Gallup World Poll, tracking SDG progress on food insecurity (790 million people facing hunger), labor & safety practices, financial inclusion; the World Health Organization, monitoring progress on both core and attendant health-related SDGs; the World Bank’s SDG Atlas Tracker, on energy and hunger; and the Sustainable Development Solutions Network’s SDG Index

So, what is the argument on linking ESGs synergistically with relevant thematic SDGs? And, would that be for all 17 goals? The answer is no.  But consideration should be made toward those SDGs that are complementary to a business and its sector(s). Where a company can thematically link (directly or indirectly), it should. By doing so, the SDGs provide a way forward for a company to plug into the “greater good” themes agreed upon by 193 countries, contributing to improved optics, perceptions and by extension, positive metrics and visibility on its ESG framework.  

Linking up ESGs to appropriate SDGs shouldn’t be that hard to do. The bigger value-addition is, by doing so, we all speak with one “improving humanity voice” as we work across business and development sectors (as opposed to stove piped). Moreover, the SDG link can provide the twofold benefit to companies of:

·        shining an international (or country-level) light on a business’ positive actions; and,

·        serving as touchstones to (directly or indirectly) aid or assist boards and investors evaluate or further appreciate the outcomes of their ESG efforts.

In analyzing the 17 SDG goals, there are 10, of the 17, which FEEEDS views with direct thematic synergy to the ESGs, and seven, which could be viewed as indirect. The blend, in the end, is up to companies.

The 10 SDGs with Direct ESG Synergies:     

The 10 SDG goals, we see with direct thematic connections to the ESGs fall mostly under Environment and Social. They include, SDGs 5-9, 12-15, and 17. Granted, many businesses are focused already on these in internal operations, therefore linkages should be easy. Below highlights which SDG goal make sense under the ESG Pillars:

Under the Environment (or Climate Change) Pillar, SDGs 6-7, 9, and 12-15 since these SDGs primarily focus on climate change issues of water, waste management and sustainable energy; to climate smart manufacturing, industrialization, production patterns and agricultural practices; to protecting land and ocean biodiversity systems.

Credit: Dr. Robin Sanders/CEO-FEEEDS 


Under the Social (or the Humankind) Pillar, SDG 5, 8, and 17 since these SDGs focus on key elements of equality, empowerment, productive employment and partnerships. But can also apply to a company’s internal operations such as human capital and ensuring living wages; to productive, descent work and healthcare for employees; to safe and humane working conditions.

SDG 17, on strengthening Global Partnerships for Sustainable Development, further underscores FEEEDS’ core argument for the ESG-SDG synergy discussion. Businesses which see this interconnectedness will likely benefit with quality relationships with outside stakeholders, contribute differently to communities where they operate, and improve partnerships or corporate social responsibility projects. These changes can help reduce risks factors to bottom lines, which recent and historic events continually show can lead to financial loss and instability costing billions.

Under the Governance (or Inward-Looking) Pillar SDGs 5 and 8 are also applicable. Although this pillar tends to be focused on a company’s internal governance, regulations and transparency, there is still synergy with these SDGs. The connections are on diversity and equality -- not only in the board room, but also with executive pay, investment dollars in minority and small businesses, and shares in ownership. Studies show less reluctance today accepting female managers than five years ago, in places like Canada (Randstad), and as shown in Gallup’s recent polling in Latin America, Eastern Europe, and the U.S. Whereas, in the 21 African countries polled, the region’s reluctance level toward women managers is still high (a median of 47% of the population prefer men, while a median of 34% said they prefer woman). Companies which systematically address this data point in their governance pillar – increasing the number of female managers – would go a long way in synergistically advancing SDG goal 5, while providing productive and descent work helps goal 8.

The Seven SDGs with Indirect ESG Synergies:

The seven SDGs where a company’s good ESG report card can be helped indirectly, include SDG goals 1-4, 10-11, and 16 given these are the larger greater good SDGs (ending all poverty, hunger, and overall improving the human condition). Certainly, good ESG stewardship will have an attendant contribution to these global SDGs as companies uplift the lives of their employees with good practices. All of which can be achieved through climate-smart behavior, providing good healthcare and life long learning opportunities, and ensuring equitable pay, diversity and gender equality from the board room through to the assembly line and agricultural fields -- all very synergistic to these seven SDGs.

 Article was also posted on Council of Foreign Relations blog site at: Environment, Social & Governance (ESG) Business Pillars - Synergies with the UN SDGs | Council on Foreign Relations (cfr.org)

 A FEEEDS Series Blogspot


Wednesday, March 10, 2021

Sanders to speak at Georgetown's Annual Africa Business Conference

Dr. Sanders, as CEO FEEEDS Advocacy Initiative, will speak at Georgetown's annual Africa Business Conference on Africa's future role as a global trade leader, particularly with the Africa Free Trade Agreement (AfCTA), now launched since January 1, 2021. This is the Ambassador's second time speaking at this prestigious conference of Africa institutional leaders, scholars, and students sharing their thoughts on Africa's business future. Sanders will be discussing Africa trade implementation strategies, particularly for the greater Africa SMEs and women business sectors, and what can be done to assist them more to take advantage of AfCTA. 

A FEEEDS Blogspot


Saturday, February 6, 2021

Dr. Sanders Speaks on Africa's Path to Globalization on Panel with Afrexim's Chief Economist Dr. Fofack

As an advocate of key development issues and linking SDGs with ESGs, Sanders addresses Africa's Path to Globalization in the joint Brookings-Thunderbird Global Dialogue Series. Dr. Sanders' contribution to the discussion will focus on Building on AfCTA, SMEs, Women & 4IR are Africa's Keys to Globalization. https://zoom.us/webinar/register/WN_Rq22pQpSSn-Y6uKag3aW_A

 

 

 

 


Register here: https://zoom.us/webinar/register/WN_Rq22pQpSSn-Y6uKag3aW_A

A FEEEDS Series Blogspot




Wednesday, January 27, 2021

Dr. Sanders on Nigeria's Channels TV Diplomatic Program: On January 6, 2021 Violence at U.S. Capital -- Its Global Impact & U.S. Future Role As An Advocate of Democracy

Nigeria's Channels TV, in its "Diplomatic Program," discusses January 6, 2021 turmoil & violence at US Capitol, inauguration & global views on U.S and its future role as an advocate of democracy. Advance link to minute 9 to see Sanders's portion of program Diplomatic Channel | 18/01/2021 - YouTube  

A FEEEDS Blogspot Series


Friday, January 15, 2021

Sanders Signs On To Letter of 300 Former U.S. Ambassadors in Support of Nominees Blinken and Thomas-Greenfield

 

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE
January 12, 2021
More Than 300 Former Ambassadors Urge Swift Confirmation of President-elect Biden’s Nominees to the Department of State and U.S. Mission to the United Nations

“Many of us have served with one or both of these exceptional nominees and can attest not only to their foreign policy capabilities but also to their strength of character.”

 “We urge the Senate to swiftly confirm these highly qualified and experienced officials so that they are ready to serve on day one of the Biden Administration.” 

WASHINGTON – In a new letter released today, more than 300 former ambassadors urged the Senate to swiftly confirm Secretary of State-designate Antony Blinken and UN Ambassador-designate Linda Thomas-Greenfield. Secretary of State-designate Blinken is an experienced leader who will hit the ground running with crucial know-how and indispensable relationships with leaders around the world. Ambassador Thomas-Greenfield served for 35 years in the Foreign Service across four continents and is one of America’s most experienced diplomats. The group of former ambassadors wrote that both nominees are crisis-tested experts who will renew American leadership, rebuild our alliances and partnerships, and restore our credibility on the world’s stage. 


The full letter with signatures can be found here and below:

As former ambassadors, we are proud to affirm our strong support for the nominations of Mr. Antony Blinken as Secretary of State and Ambassador Linda Thomas-Greenfield as U.S. Permanent Representative to the United Nations. Many of us have served with one or both of these exceptional nominees and can attest not only to their foreign policy capabilities but also to their strength of character. We urge the Senate to swiftly confirm these highly qualified and experienced officials so that they are ready to serve on day one of the Biden Administration. 

Mr. Blinken and Ambassador Thomas-Greenfield’s combined decades of experience in foreign affairs and national security make them more than qualified for these vital roles. Their deep knowledge of State Department operations has prepared them for the essential job of revitalizing a workforce that has suffered from budget cuts, unexplained attacks by foreign adversaries, and even questions about their necessity to U.S. policymaking in recent years. They are crisis-tested experts who will renew American leadership, rebuild our alliances and partnerships, and restore our credibility on the world’s stage. 

Mr. Blinken — having held top foreign affairs posts on Capitol Hill, in the White House, and as Deputy Secretary of State — is an experienced leader who will hit the ground running with crucial know-how and indispensable relationships with leaders around the world. He knows the State Department, understands the challenges it faces, and has a vision for both investing in its workforce and revitalizing American diplomacy.

Ambassador Thomas-Greenfield, having served for 35 years in the Foreign Service across four continents, is one of America’s most experienced diplomats. She has tackled complex foreign policy challenges, including her service as the top State Department official in charge of Africa policy during the Ebola crisis. She also brings more than a decade of experience working on refugee and migration policy, including work on the frontlines of multilateral diplomacy during her service at the U.S. Mission to the UN in Geneva. 

Mr. Blinken and Ambassador Thomas-Greenfield are the leaders our country needs to meet the challenges of this century — not just the last one. That is why we’re urging the Senate to act as quickly as possible and confirm both nominees to begin the work of restoring American leadership and credibility. 

Signed,

Gina K. Abercrombie-Winstanley
Ambassador to Malta (2012-2016)

Charles C. Adams
Ambassador to Finland (2005-2007)

Cynthia H. Akuetteh
Ambassador to Gabon (2014-2018); Ambassador to São Tomé and Príncipe (2014-2018)

Bernadette M. Allen
Ambassador to Niger (2006-2010)

Frank Almaguer
Ambassador to Honduras (1999-2002)

Carolyn Patricia Alsup
Ambassador to The Gambia (2015-2018)

Alexander Arvizu 
Ambassador to Albania (2010-2015)

Mark L. Asquino
Ambassador to Equatorial Guinea (2012-2015)

Liliana Ayalde
Ambassador to Brazil (2013-2016); Ambassador to Paraguay (2008-2011)

Daniel Baer
Ambassador to the OSCE (2013-2017)

Robert Cushman Barber
Ambassador to Iceland (2015-2017)

Shirley Elizabeth Barnes 
Ambassador to Madagascar (1998-2001)

Adrian Basora
Ambassador to Czechoslovakia and then to Czech Republic (1992-1995)

Leslie A. Bassett
Ambassador to Paraguay (2015-2017)

Michael A. Battle 
Ambassador to the African Union (2009-2013)

Denise Campbell Bauer
Ambassador to Belgium (2013-2017)

Robert M. Beecroft
Ambassador and Head of Mission, OSCE Peacekeeping Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina (2001-2004)

Colleen Bell
Ambassador to Hungary (2014-2017)

Bruce G. Berton
Ambassador and Head of Mission, OSCE Mission to Bosnia-Herzegovina (2017-2019)

Donald Sternoff Beyer Jr.
Ambassador to Switzerland and Liechtenstein (2009-2013)

John R. Beyrle
Ambassador to Russia (2008-2012); Ambassador to Bulgaria (2005-2008)

Clyde Bishop
Ambassador to Republic of the Marshall Islands (2006-2009)

James K. Bishop
Ambassador to Somalia (1990-1991); Ambassador to Liberia (1987-1990); Ambassador to Niger (1979-1981)

Robert D. Blackwill
Ambassador to India (2001-2003)

Robert Blake
Ambassador to Indonesia (2013-2016); Ambassador to Sri Lanka (2006-2009)

John William Blaney
Ambassador to Liberia (2002-2005)

Hon. Jeffrey Bleich
Ambassador to Australia (2009-2013)

Peter W. Bodde
Ambassador to Libya (2015-2017); Ambassador to Nepal (2012-2015); Ambassador to Malawi (2008-2010)

Michele Thoren Bond
Ambassador to Lesotho (2010-2012)

Amy Laura Bondurant 
Ambassador to the OECD (1997-2001) 

Carol Moseley Braun
Ambassador to New Zealand and Samoa (1998-2001)

Aurelia E. Brazeal
Ambassador to Ethiopia (2002-2005); Ambassador to Kenya (1993-1996); Ambassador to The Federated States of Micronesia (1990-1993)

James (Wally) Brewster
Ambassador to the Dominican Republic (2013-2017)

Pamela E. Bridgewater 
Ambassador to Jamaica (2010-2013); Ambassador to Ghana (2005-2008); Ambassador to Benin (2000-2002)

Kenneth C. Brill
Ambassador to Cyprus (1996-1999); Ambassador to the IAEA and the UN Office in Vienna (2001-2004)

Nancy Goodman Brinker
Chief of Protocol of the United States (2007-2009); Ambassador to Hungary (2001-2003)

Timothy Broas
Ambassador to the Netherlands (2014-2016)

Kenneth L. Brown
Ambassador to Ghana (1992-1995); Ambassador to Cote d'Ivoire (1989-1992); Ambassador to the Republic of the Congo (1981-1984)

Sue K. Brown
Ambassador to Montenegro (2011-2015)

Steven A. Browning 
Ambassador to Uganda (2006-2009); Ambassador to Malawi (2003-2004)

George Bruno
Ambassador to Belize (1994-1997)

A. Peter Burleigh
Ambassador and Deputy Permanent Representative to the United Nations (1997-1999); Ambassador to Sri Lanka and the Maldives (1995-1997); Ambassador for Counter-Terrorism (1991-1992)

Nicholas Burns
Ambassador to NATO (2001-2005); Ambassador to Greece (1997-2001)

Dwight L. Bush 
Ambassador to Morocco (2014-2016)

Luis C. deBaca
Ambassador-at-Large, Trafficking in Persons (2009-2014)

John Campbell
Ambassador to Nigeria (2004-2007)

Piper Anne Wind Campbell
Ambassador to Mongolia (2012-2015)

David L. Carden
Ambassador to the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (2011-2013)

Timothy Carney
Ambassador to Haiti (1998-1999); Ambassador to Sudan (1995-1997) 

Johnnie Carson
Ambassador to Kenya (1999-2003); Ambassador to Zimbabwe (1995-1997); Ambassador to Uganda (1991-1994)

Phillip Carter III
Ambassador to Guinea (2007-2008); Ambassador to Cote d'Ivoire (2010-2013)

Judith B. Cefkin
Ambassador to Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, Tonga, and Tuvalu (2015-2018)

Robert F. Cekuta
Ambassador to Azerbaijan (2015-2018)

Wendy J. Chamberlin
Ambassador to Pakistan (2001-2002); Ambassador to Laos (1995 -1998)

Peter R. Chaveas
Ambassador to Sierra Leone (2001-2004); Ambassador to Malawi (1994-1997) 

Mark Childress
Ambassador to Tanzania (2014-2016)

Herman J. Cohen
Ambassador to Senegal (1977-1980)

James Collins
Ambassador to Russia (1998-2001)

Elinor G. Constable
Ambassador to Kenya (1986-1989)

Frances D. Cook 
Ambassador to Oman (1996-1999); Ambassador to Cameroon (1989-1993); Ambassador to Burundi (1980-1983)

Frederick Bishop Cook
Ambassador to the Central African Republic (2007-2010)

J. Gary Cooper
Ambassador to Jamaica (1994-1997)

Cindy Courville
Ambassador to the African Union (2006-2008) 

Ertharin Cousin
Ambassador to the United Nations Agencies for Food and Agriculture and Chief of Mission to the UN Agencies in Rome (2009-2012)

Ryan Clark Crocker
Ambassador to Afghanistan (2011-2012); Ambassador to Iraq (2007-2009); Ambassador to Pakistan (2004-2007); Ambassador to Syria (1998-2001); Ambassador to Kuwait (1994-1997); Ambassador to Lebanon (1990-1993)

James B. Cunningham 
Ambassador to Afghanistan (2012-2014); Ambassador to Israel (2008-2011); Ambassador to the UN (1999-2004)

Walter L. Cutler
Ambassador to Saudi Arabia (1988-1989); Ambassador to Saudi Arabia (1984-1987); Ambassador to Tunisia (1982-1984); Ambassador to Zaire (1975-1979)

Ivo Daalder
Ambassador to NATO (2009-2013)

Glyn T. Davies
Ambassador to Thailand (2015-2018); Ambassador to UN Organizations in Vienna (2009-2011)

Ruth A. Davis
Ambassador to Benin (1992-1995)

Jeffrey DeLaurentis
Ambassador to the UN for Special Political Affairs (2011-2014)

Greg Delawie
Ambassador to Kosovo (2015-2018)

Christopher Dell
Ambassador to Kosovo (2009-2012); Ambassador to Zimbabwe (2004-2007); Ambassador to Angola (2001-2004)

Miguel H. Diaz
Ambassador to the Holy See (2009-2012)

Kathleen Ann Doherty
Ambassador to the Republic of Cyprus (2015-2019)

Eileen Donahoe
Ambassador to the UN Human Rights Council (2010-2013)

Shaun Donnelly
Ambassador to Sri Lanka and Maldives (1997-2000) 

Joseph R. Donovan Jr.
Ambassador to Indonesia (2016-2020)

Thomas Dougherty
Ambassador to Burkina Faso (2010-2013)

David B. Dunn
Ambassador to Togo (2006-2008); Ambassador to Zambia (1999-2002)

William C. Eacho III
Ambassador to Austria (2009-2013)

William A. Eaton
Ambassador to Panama (2005-2008)

Eric S. Edelman
Ambassador to Turkey (2003-2005); Ambassador to Finland (1998-2001)

Norman Eisen
Ambassador to Czech Republic (2011-2014)

Harriet L. Elam-Thomas
Ambassador to Senegal (2000-2003)

Susan M. Elliott
Ambassador to Tajikistan (2012-2015)

Edward E. Elson
Ambassador to Denmark (1993-1998)

Nancy Ely-Raphel
Ambassador to Slovenia (1998-2001)

John B. Emerson
Ambassador to Germany (2013-2017)

Gregory W. Engle
Ambassador to Togo (2003-2005)

John L. Estrada
Ambassador to Trinidad and Tobago (2016-2017)

Kenneth J. Fairfax
Ambassador to Kazakhstan (2011-2013)

John Feeley
Ambassador to Panama (2016-18)

Gerald M. Feierstein
Ambassador to Yemen (2010-2013)

Lee Feinstein
Ambassador to Poland (2009-2012)

Jeffrey Feltman
Ambassador to Lebanon (2004-2008)

David C. Fields 
Ambassador to the Marshall Islands (1992-1995); Ambassador to Office of Foreign Missions (1990-1992); Ambassador to Central African Republic (1986-1989)

Kathleen M. Fitzpatrick 
Ambassador to Timor-Leste (2017-2020)

Robert Ford
Ambassador to Syria (2011-2014); Ambassador to Algeria (2008-2010)

Jendayi Frazer
Ambassador to South Africa (2004-2005)

Laurie S. Fulton
Ambassador to Denmark (2009-2013)

Julie Furuta-Toy
Ambassador to Equatorial Guinea (2016-2019)

Edward Gabriel
Ambassador to Morocco (1997-2001)

Peter W. Galbraith
Ambassador to Croatia (1993-1998)

Anthony Gardner
Ambassador to the European Union (2014-2017)

Patrick Gaspard 
Ambassador to South Africa (2013-2016)

Michelle Gavin
Ambassador to Botswana (2011-2014)

Robert S. Gelbard
Ambassador to Indonesia (1999-2001); Ambassador to Bolivia (1988-1991)

Gordon D. Giffin
Ambassador to Canada (1997-2001)

Mark D. Gilbert 
Ambassador to New Zealand and Samoa (2014-2017)

Donald H. Gips
Ambassador to South Africa (2009-2013)

Edward W. Gnehm Jr.
Ambassador to Jordan (2001-2004); Ambassador to Australia (2000-2001); Deputy Permanent Representative to the UN-NY (1994-1997); Ambassador to Kuwait (1991-1994) 

Christopher E. Goldthwait
Ambassador to Chad (1999-2004)

Gary A. Grappo
Ambassador to Oman (2006-2009)

Gordon Gray
Ambassador to Tunisia (2009-2012) 

David A. Gross
Ambassador and US Coordinator for International Communications and Information Policy (2002-2009)

Lino Gutiérrez
Ambassador to Argentina (2003-2006); Ambassador to Nicaragua (1996-1999)

Howard Gutman
Ambassador to Belgium (2009-2013)

Nina Hachigian
Ambassador to the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (2014-2017)

Pamela K. Hamamoto
Ambassador to the United Nations in Geneva (2014-2017)

S. Fitzgerald Haney
Ambassador to Costa Rica (2015-2017)

Anthony Stephen Harrington
Ambassador to Brazil (1999-2001)

Patricia M. Hawkin
Ambassador to the Togo (2008-2011)

Bruce Alan Heyman
Ambassador to Canada (2014-2017)

Douglas T. Hickey 
Ambassador to Expo Milano (2014-2016)

Heather Hodges
Ambassador to Ecuador (2008-2011); Ambassador to Moldova (2003-2006)

Karl Hofmann
Ambassador to Togo (2000-2002)

Laura S. H. Holgate
Ambassador to International Atomic Energy Agency (2016-2017)

Genta Hawkins Holmes
Ambassador to Australia (1997-2000); Ambassador to Namibia (1990-1992)

Michael Stephen Hoza
Ambassador to Cameroon (2014-2017)

Vicki J. Huddleston 
Ambassador to Mali (2002-2005); Ambassador to Madagascar (1995-1997)

David Huebner
Ambassador to New Zealand (2009-2014)

Marie T. Huhtala
Ambassador to Malaysia (2001-2004)

Harriet W. Isom
Ambassador to Cameroon (1993-1996); Ambassador to Benin (1990-1993)

Robert Porter Jackson
Ambassador to Ghana (2016-2018); Ambassador to Cameroon (2010-2013)

Jeanine Jackson
Ambassador to Malawi (2011-2014); Ambassador to Burkina Faso (2006-2009)

Susan Jacobs 
Ambassador to Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu (2000-2003)

Janice Jacobs
Ambassador to Senegal and Guinea-Bissau (2006-2007)

Tracey Jacobson
Ambassador to Kosovo (2012-2015); Ambassador to Tajikistan (2006-2009); Ambassador to Turkmenistan (2003-2006)

Bonnie Jenkins
Ambassador, Coordinator for Threat Reduction Programs (2009-2017)

Howard F. Jeter
Ambassador to Nigeria (2000-2003); Ambassador to Botswana (1993-1996)

Dennis Jett
Ambassador to Peru (1996-1999); Ambassador to Mozambique (1993-1996)

David T. Johnson
Ambassador to the OSCE (1998-2001)

Beth Jones
Ambassador to Kazakhstan (1995-1998)

Deborah Jones
Ambassador to Libya (2013-2015); Ambassador to Kuwait (2008-2011)

James R. Jones
Ambassador to Mexico (1993-1997)

Mosina H. Jordan
Ambassador to the Central African Republic (1995-1998)

Arma Jane Karaer
Ambassador to Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu (1997-2000)

Allan J. Katz
Ambassador to Portugal (2010-2013)

Richard D. Kauzlarich
Ambassador to Bosnia and Herzegovina (1997-1999); Ambassador to Azerbaijan (1994-1997)

Kenton W. Keith
Ambassador to Qatar (1988-1992)

Craig Kelly
Ambassador to Chile (2004-2007)

Laura E. Kennedy
Ambassador to the Conference on Disarmament (2010-2013); Ambassador to Turkmenistan (2001-2003)

Patrick F. Kennedy
Ambassador for Management and Reform, USUN (2001-2005) 

Caroline Kennedy
Ambassador to Japan (2013-2017)

Kristie A. Kenney
Ambassador to Thailand (2010-2014); Ambassador to Philippines (2006-2010); Ambassador to Ecuador (2002-2005)

David Killion
Ambassador to UNESCO (2009-2014)

Hans Klemm
Ambassador to Romania (2015-2019); Ambassador to Timor-Leste (2007-2010)

Karen Kornbluh
Ambassador to the OECD (2009-2012)

John C. Kornblum
Ambassador to Germany (1997-2001); Ambassador to OSCE (1991-1994)

Eleni Kounalakis
Ambassador to Hungary (2010-2013)

Thomas Krajeski
Ambassador to Bahrain (2011-2014); Ambassador to Yemen (2004-2007)

Lisa Kubiske
Ambassador to Honduras (2011-2014)

Daniel Kurtzer
Ambassador to Israel (2001-2005); Ambassador to Egypt (1997-2001)

Joyce E. Leader
Ambassador to Guinea (1999-2000)

Alfonso E. Lenhardt
Ambassador to Tanzania (2009-2013)

Jeffrey D. Levine
Ambassador to Estonia (2012-2015)

Suzan LeVine
Ambassador to Switzerland and Liechtenstein (2014-2017)

Delano E. Lewis Sr.
Ambassador to South Africa (1999-2001)

Dawn Liberi
Ambassador to Burundi (2012-2016)

Hugo Llorens
Ambassador to Honduras (2008-2011)

Carmen Lomellin 
Ambassador to the OAS (2009-2014)

Lewis Lukens
Ambassador to Senegal and Guinea-Bissau (2011-2014)

Douglas Lute
Ambassador to NATO (2013-2017)

John F. Maisto
Ambassador to the Organization of American States (2003-2006); Ambassador to Venezuela (1997-2000); Ambassador to Nicaragua (1993-1996)

Deborah R. Malac
Ambassador to Uganda (2016-2020); Ambassador to Liberia (2012-2015)

Eileen A. Malloy
Ambassador to Kyrgyzstan (1994-1997)

Robert Mandell
Ambassador to Luxembourg (2011-2015)

Steven R. Mann
Ambassador to Turkmenistan (1998-2001)

Edward Marks
Ambassador to Guinea-Bissau (1986-1989); Ambassador to Cape Verde (1986-1989)

R. Niels Marquardt
Ambassador to Madagascar and the Comoros (2007-2010); Ambassador to Cameroon (2004-2007); Ambassador to Equatorial Guinea (2004-2006)

Dennise Mathieu
Ambassador to Namibia (2007-2010); Ambassador to Niger (2002-2005)

Marshall Fletcher McCallie
Ambassador to Namibia (1993-1996)

Deborah McCarthy
Ambassador to Lithuania (2013-2016)

Terence P. McCulley
Ambassador to Côte d'Ivoire (2013-2016); Ambassador to Nigeria (2010-2013); Ambassador to Mali (2005-2008)

Stephen G. McFarland
Ambassador to Guatemala (2008-2011)

Michael McFaul
Ambassador to Russia (2012-2014)

C. Steven McGann
Ambassador to Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, Tonga, and Tuvalu (2008-2011)

James D. McGee
Ambassador to Zimbabwe (2007-2009); Ambassador to Comoros Islands (2006-2007); Ambassador to Madagascar (2004-2007); Ambassador to Swaziland (2002-2004); 

David McKean
Ambassador to Luxembourg (2016-2017) 

P. Michael McKinley
Ambassador to Brazil (2017-2018); Ambassador to Afghanistan (2014-2016); Ambassador to Colombia (2010-2013); Ambassador to Peru (2007-2010) 

Elizabeth Davenport McKune
Ambassador to Qatar (1998-2001) 

James D. Melville Jr.
Ambassador to Estonia (2015-2018) 

William Milam
Ambassador to Pakistan (1998-2001); Ambassador to Bangladesh (1990-1993) 

Thomas J. Miller
Ambassador to Greece (2001-2005); Ambassador to Bosnia (1999-2001); Cyprus Negotiator (1997-1999) 

David Charles Miller, Jr.
Ambassador to Zimbabwe (1984-1986); Ambassador to Tanzania (1981-1984) 

Derek Mitchell
Ambassador to Burma (2012-2016) 

Patricia Newton Moller
Ambassador to Guinea (2009-2012); Ambassador to Burundi (2006-2009) 

Roderick W. Moore
Ambassador to Montenegro (2007-2010) 

George E. Moose

Ambassador to the UN Office in Geneva (1998-2001); Ambassador to Senegal (1988-1991); Ambassador to Benin (1983-1986) 

Luis G. Moreno
Ambassador to Jamaica (2014-2017)

Carlos Moreno
Ambassador to Belize (2014-2017) 

Richard Morningstar
Ambassador to Azerbaijan (2012-2014); Ambassador to the EU (1999-2001) 

Stephen D. Mull
Ambassador to Poland (2012-2015); Ambassador to Lithuania (2003-2006) 

Cameron Munter
Ambassador to Pakistan (2010-2012); Ambassador to Serbia (2007-2009) 

Allan Mustard
Ambassador to Turkmenistan (2015-2019) 

Larry C. Napper
Ambassador to Kazakhstan (2001-2004); Ambassador to Latvia (1995-1998) 

David D. Nelson
Ambassador to Uruguay (2010-2011) 

Wanda L. Nesbitt
Ambassador to Namibia (2010-2013); Ambassador to Cote d'Ivoire (2007-2010); Ambassador to Madagascar (2002-2004) 

Ronald E. Neumann
Ambassador to Afghanistan (2005-2007); Ambassador to Bahrain (2001-2004); Ambassador to Algeria (1994-1997) 

Thomas M. T. Niles
Ambassador to Greece (1993-1997); Ambassador to the European Union (then the European Community) (1989-1991); Ambassador to Canada (1985-1989) 

Crystal Nix-Hines
Ambassador to UNESCO (2014-2017) 

Victoria Nuland
Ambassador to NATO (2005-2008) 

Richard Olson
Ambassador to Pakistan (2012-2015); Ambassador to the UAE (2008-2011) 

Susan D. Page
Ambassador to South Sudan (2011-2014) 

Larry L. Palmer
Ambassador to Barbados and the Eastern Caribbean (2012-2016); Ambassador to Honduras (2002-2005) 

Joseph R. Paolino Jr.
Ambassador to Malta (1994-1996)  

Maurice S. Parker
Ambassador to Swaziland (2007-2009) 

Anne W. Patterson
Ambassador to Egypt (2011-2013); Ambassador to Pakistan (2007-2010); Ambassador to Colombia (2000-2003); Ambassador to El Salvador (1997-2000)

David D. Pearce
Ambassador to Greece (2013-2016); Ambassador to Algeria (2008-2011) 

June Carter Perry 
Ambassador to Sierra Leone (2007-2009); Ambassador to Lesotho (2004-2007) 

Robert C. Perry
Ambassador to the Central African Republic (1999-2001) 

Mary Ann Peters
Ambassador to Bangladesh (2000-2003) 

Nancy Bikoff Pettit
Ambassador to Latvia (2015-2019) 

John R. Phillips
Ambassador to Italy (2013-2017) 

Thomas R. Pickering
Ambassador to Russia (1993-1996); Ambassador to India (1992-1993); Ambassador to the United Nations (1989-1992); Ambassador to Israel (1985-1988); Ambassador to El Salvador (1983-1985); Ambassador to Nigeria (1981-1983); Ambassador to Jordan (1974-1978) 

Steven Pifer
Ambassador to Ukraine (1998-2000) 

Joan M. Plaisted 
Ambassador to the Marshall Islands and Kiribati (1995-2000)  

Michael C. Polt
Ambassador to Estonia (2009-2012); Ambassador to Serbia and Montenegro (2004-2007) 

Azita Raji
Ambassador to Sweden (2016-2017) 

Charles A. Ray
Ambassador to Zimbabwe (2009-2012); Ambassador to Cambodia (2002-2005) 

Helen Patricia Reed-Rowe 
Ambassador to Palau (2010-2013) 

Charles H. Rivkin
Ambassador to France and Monaco (2009-2013) 

Thomas Robertson
Ambassador to Slovenia (2004-2007) 

John V. Roos
Ambassador to Japan (2009-2013) 

James C. Rosapepe
Ambassador to Romania (1998-2001) 

Leslie Rowe
Ambassador to Mozambique (2009-2012); Ambassador to Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu (2006-2009) 

Robin Renee Sanders
Ambassador to Nigeria and the ECOWAS Regional Organization (2007-2010); Ambassador to the Republic of the Congo (2002-2005) 

Janet A. Sanderson
Ambassador to Haiti (2006-2009); Ambassador to Algeria (2000-2003) 

Teresita C. Schaffer
Ambassador to Sri Lanka (1992-1995) 

Andrew H. Schapiro
Ambassador to the Czech Republic (2014-2017) 

J. Thomas Schieffer
Ambassador to Japan (2005-2009); Ambassador to Australia (2001-2005) 

Rockwell Schnabel
Ambassador to the EU (2001-2005); Ambassador to Finland (1986-1989) 

Brenda Brown Schoonover
Ambassador to Togo (1998-2000) 

James Schumaker
OSCE Ambassador to Ukraine (2005-2008)  

Kyle Scott
Ambassador to Serbia (2016-2019) 

Theodore Sedgwick
Ambassador to Slovak Republic (2010-2015) 

Thomas A. Shannon Jr.
Ambassador to Brazil (2010-2013) 

Daniel B. Shapiro
Ambassador to Israel (2011-2017) 

Mattie R. Sharpless
Ambassador to the Central African Republic (2001-2003) 

David B. Shear
Ambassador to Vietnam (2011-2014) 

Derek Norcross Shearer
Ambassador to Finland (1994-1997) 

Sally Shelton-Colby
Ambassador to the Eastern Caribbean (1979-1981) 

Robert A. Sherman
Ambassador to Portugal (2014-2017) 

David Shinn
Ambassador to Ethiopia (1996-1999); Ambassador to Burkina Faso (1987-1990) 

Thomas L. Siebert
Ambassador to Sweden (1994-1998) 

Douglas A. Silliman
Ambassador to Iraq (2016-2019); Ambassador to Kuwait (2014-2016) 

Lawrence Robert Silverman
Ambassador to Kuwait (2016-2019) 

Emil Skodon
Ambassador to Brunei Darussalam (2005-2008) 

Dana Shell Smith
Ambassador to Qatar (2014-2017)

Nancy Soderberg
Alternate Representative to the United Nations (1997-2001) 

Alan Solomont
Ambassador to Spain and Andorra (2009-2013) 

Pamela L. Spratlen
Ambassador to Uzbekistan (2015-2018); Ambassador to Kyrgyzstan (2011-2014) 

Sylvia Gaye Stanfield
Ambassador to Brunei Darussalam (1999-2002) 

George M. Staples
Ambassador to Cameroon (2001-2004); Ambassador to Equatorial Guinea (2001-2004); Ambassador to Rwanda (1998-2001) 

Cynthia Stroum 
Ambassador to Luxembourg (2009-2011) 

Louis B. Susman
Ambassador to the United Kingdom (2009-2013) 

William Lacy Swing
Ambassador to Democratic Republic of Congo (1998-2001); Ambassador to Haiti (1993-1998); Ambassador to Nigeria (1992-1993); Ambassador to South Africa (1989-1992); Ambassador to Liberia (1981-1985); Ambassador to Republic of Congo (1979-1981) 

Francis X. Taylor
Ambassador at Large for Counterterrorism (2001-2002) 

Teddy B. Taylor
Ambassador to Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Vanuatu (2009-2012) 

Richard W. Teare
Ambassador to Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Vanuatu (1993-1996) 

Frankie Reed
Ambassador to Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, Tonga, and Tuvalu (2011-2015) 

Patrick N. Theros
Ambassador to Qatar (1995-1998) 

Harry K. Thomas Jr. 
Ambassador to Zimbabwe (2018-2020); Ambassador to the Philippines (2010-2013); Ambassador to Bangladesh (2003-2005) 

David Thorne
Ambassador to Italy and the Republic of San Marino (2009-2013) 

Kurt W. Tong
Ambassador to APEC (2009-2011) 

Robert H. Tuttle
Ambassador to the United Kingdom (2005-2009)  

Charles Twining
Ambassador to Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea (1996-1998); Ambassador to Cambodia (1991-1995) 

Melanne Verveer
Ambassador for Global Women's Issues (2009-2013) 

Edward S. Walker
Ambassador to Israel (1997-2000); Ambassador to Egypt (1994-1997); Ambassador to USUN (1993-1994); Ambassador to UAE (1989-1992) 

Marc Wall
Ambassador to Chad (2004-2007) 

Jake Walles
Ambassador to Tunisia (2012-2015) 

James Donald Walsh
Ambassador to Argentina (2000-2003) 

Mary Burce Warlick
Ambassador to Serbia (2010-2012) 

Alexander F. Watson
Ambassador to Peru (1986-1989) 

Linda E. Watt
Ambassador to Panama (2002-2005) 

Earl Anthony Wayne
Ambassador to Mexico (2011-2015); Ambassador to Argentina (2006-2009) 

Barry L. Wells
Ambassador to The Gambia (2007-2010) 

Alice G. Wells
Ambassador to Jordan (2014-2017) 

Alexa Wesner
Ambassador to Austria (2013-2017) 

Joseph Westphal
Ambassador to Saudi Arabia (2014-2017) 

David Bruce Wharton
Ambassador to Zimbabwe (2012-2015) 

Barry B. White
Ambassador to Norway (2009-2013) 

Pamela A. White
Ambassador to Haiti (2012-2015); Ambassador to The Gambia (2010-2012) 

Sharon Wilkinson
Ambassador to the Republic of Mozambique (2000-2003); Ambassador to Burkina Faso (1996-1999) 

Swing William
Ambassador to Democratic Republic of Congo (1998-2001); Ambassador to Haiti (1993-1998); Ambassador to Nigeria (1992-1993); Ambassador to South Africa (1989-1992); Ambassador to Liberia (1981-1985);  Ambassador to Republic of Congo (1979-1981) 

Bisa Williams
Ambassador to Niger (2010-2013) 

Clint Williamson
Ambassador-at-Large for War Crimes Issues (2006-2009) 

Duane E. Woerth
Ambassador to International Civil Aviation Organization (2010-2013) 

John Wolf
Ambassador to APEC (1997-1998); Ambassador to Malaysia (1992-1995) 

Kenneth Yalowitz
Ambassador to Georgia (1998-2001); Ambassador to Belarus (1994-1997) 

Mary Carlin Yates
Ambassador to Ghana (2002-2005); Ambassador to Burundi (1999-2002) 

Larry Greenwood
Ambassador to APEC (2001-2003) 

Daniel W. Yohannes
Ambassador to OECD (2014-2017) 

Johnny Young
Ambassador to Slovenia (2001-2004); Ambassador to Bahrain (1997-2001); Ambassador to Togo (1994-1997); Ambassador to Sierra Leone (1989-1992) 

Marie Yovanovitch
Ambassador to Ukraine (2016-2019); Ambassador to Armenia (2008-2011); Ambassador to the Kyrgyz Republic (2005-2008)   

Joseph Yun
Ambassador to Malaysia (2013-2016) 

James Peter Zumwalt
Ambassador to Senegal and to Guinea-Bissau (2015-2017)


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