Friday, October 16, 2020

New Gallup-Lloyd’s Register Poll: Highlights Africa’s Worries & Risks -- Climate Change & Risk of Harm are Top Concerns

 Published first on Allafrica.comhttps://allafrica.com/stories/202010141124.html

                   Africa's Worries & Risks: Implications for US-Africa Policy & Development

By 

Dr. Robin Renee Sanders 

The world renown Gallup Poll in partnership with Lloyd’s Register Foundation released their new Worry, Experience Harm/Risk & Government Safety Performance Index (GSPI) indices as part of their World Risk Poll, which covers some 142 countries, of which 39 were African nations. The polling done in local languages with males and females participants aged 15 years and above, highlights the worries, harm or risks of those who were surveyed. The World Risk Poll (and its three indices)– is set to repeat four times over the next six years – with compiling for the 2021 questionnaire already under way. It is likely that the next installation of the poll (and its three indices) will show even starker reactions on these overarching themes of worry, harm or risk as a result of the world having been under a full year by then, and likely more, of COVID-19.

Some of the specific themes included in the three indices of  Worry, Experience Harm/Risk & GSPI,  focused on a range of climate change issues from severe weather to food security and, food and water safety; violence, crime, and conflict; safety and harassment in the workplace (particularly against women); infrastructural challenges, online threats; the role and impact of future technologies uses (e.g. artificial intelligence, etc.) on their lives; and, whether or not people trust their government.   

Why the Indices are Important & What They Say:  

Many of the above themes are important for review by national governments, foreign policy makers, national security leaders, development donors, and are, in some ways, key elements within the United Nation’s (UN) Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Thus the Worry, Experience Harm/Risk & GSPI indices are important tools for those working in these areas, because so much attention, focus and money over the last two decades have gone toward and continues to go toward (as it should),  tackling global poverty and conflict as well as seeking to make people feel safe. This includes improving quality of life, encouraging democracy and human rights; and, providing assistance to climate sensitive environments (although the U.S. certainly has not done its part on climate change in the last 18 months or more).  Thus, the responses in these three indices demonstrate that despite a lot of work and commitment on many of these goals, people are not necessarily feeling safe from harm or risks, and that “moving the needle,” could be even more challenging than previously anticipated, requiring more adjustments in strategic planning, policy, and resources than foreseen. This is especially daunting for regions like Africa, Latin America, and Southeast Asia. We already know that according to the World Bank’s October 8, 2020 Report that COVID-19 alone will push another 40-50 million people around the world into poverty on top of the 2019 prior pandemic figure of 736 million. COVID erases nearly five years of development work, and pretty much wipes out a lot of the progress made under the UN SDGs, with SSAfrica and Asia being the hardest hit, followed closely by countries like Brazil.          

Understandably worry and experiencing harm or risk, and their attendant issues of fear and uncertainty, are tough things to measure, but these new indices do a very good job of putting the data into a global perspective. Further, it is clear that many of the responses by those living in SSAfrica were connected to climate change issues; internal social sector uncertainties in their own countries; conflict and infrastructural issues; and, negative reactions connected to online bullying, fraud, validity of information (fake news) and related cybercrimes. It was good to see that the economic impact and development benefits of new technologies usage, such as artificial intelligence, over the long term, had fairly positive responses.

What the Indices Mean as a US-Africa Foreign Policy Tool:

Thus, the biggest take away from the data for the 39 African countries covered in the Worry, Experience Harm/Risk & GSPI indices clearly show that for those of us focused on SSAfrica foreign policy, national security and development issues it will be critical to pay more attention to these intangibles – worry, harm/risk and fear – in order to achieve more success on the substantive side of our work. These data points should all be considered elements of development, security, and economic growth. Granted, it will be a bit of a challenge to find ways to restructure, regroup, and reframe some aspects of our foreign policy and development efforts in the region in order to factor in these intangibles. However, the results in these indices, demonstrate that this is a must-do, especially since most SSAfrica respondents said they felt “about the same,” now as they did five years ago regarding their safety – meaning their sense of “feeling safe or safer” had not improved in five years. This underscores that whatever improvements in development or quality of life one might have had over the last 5 years, did not translated into people believing or feeling that they were still not in harm’s way. 

We can surely see in today’s Africa that worry, harm/risk and fear, as regards to climate change, are being driven by things like devastating weather-related disasters and further desertification, increasing the number of climate refugees or internally displaced persons (IDPs). While others are connected to internal conflicts causing rollbacks on democracy (e.g. Mali, Tanzania); or, upticks in destabilizing activity (i.e. Mozambique’s northern eastern provinces of Zambezia, Nampula and Cabo Delgado have become an extremist hotbed in the last three years. NB: Speaking from experience, the U.S. needs to pay much more attention to this area through a robust Africa Command, and one that stays reasonable close to the SSAfrica region so it can remain fully engaged to avoid a larger Boko-Haram like conflict playing out there).

Of course, a lot has been done by donors, governments, the private sector and philanthropists. No one is discounting this. But we also know that more always needs to be done. But clearly these indices demonstrate that there are additional important gaps we need to take into account.

Over the years we have all seen the increase in well-being surveys from organizations and institutions from around the world, which pull together a basket of key sectors on which to determine how people are doing. But what is different with these new indices is they reflect “how people are feeling.”  Many people in Africa, as well as all over the globe, are feeling worried as they feel unsafe, and fear harm or risk to themselves or someone they know -- a reflection of the uncertainty felt in the world in general way before COVID-19.  

Closer Look at Some of SSAfrica Results – Worry, Harm/Risk & GSPI:

A few highlights, summary points and analyses from the three indices follow below regarding responses by SSAfrica participants in the Gallup-Lloyd’s Register Foundation Worry, Experience Harm/Risk & GSPI indices:

I. Respondents in Benin, Botswana, Cameroon, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe rated high on the “Worry and Experience Harm/Risk” indices, driven by concerns centered on “high levels of everyday risks,” associate with severe weather, unsafe food and water, crime or harm by household appliances or powerlines.

a.) Although the percentages for the above countries were the highest among the SSAfrica countries surveyed, percentage breakdowns across the board for women in the region in these categories were always greater.

b.) South Africa rated the highest on these indices in this category, with 58% of its people being worried or experiencing harm/risk to themselves or someone they know on par with Brazil and Venezuela, which also rated 58%. Nigeria, on the other hand, had a lower percentage than the world median (39% to 43%) on the “Worry and Experience Harm/Risk” indices, although with the recent youth-driven protests against the country's Security Anti-Robbery Squad (see #EndSARS) this rating will likely change during the next polling.

II. Respondents in the majority of SSAfrica such as Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Mozambique, South Africa and Tanzania and most other nations said they “felt about as safe as they did five years ago,” so no improvement in their safety fears over the last five years. While people in Rwanda (67%), Ethiopia (55%), Nigeria (43%), Ghana (41%), and Uganda (41%) said they “felt safer than they did five years ago,” – meaning all these countries beat the world median (36%).

        a.) Botswana broke nearly even between those that feel safer (35%) and those who feel the same as they did five years ago (36%) about their safety or the safety of their loved ones.

        b.) Given the recent political tensions, conflicts and elections issues in Ethiopia, however, FEEEDS’ expectation is that Ethiopia’s results in this category will likely drop from this high of 55%, to something lower, in the next survey. Off-and-on demonstrations in the capital, Addis Ababa; tensions in the Oromo area; and, the October 7, 2020, cutting of political ties between the federal upper house of parliament and the state assembly of the key regional administrative area of Tigray over its unsanctioned September 9, 2020, elections will likely lead to a drop.

III. Respondents in the Ivory Coast, Kenya, Malawi, South Africa, Uganda, Swaziland (now called eSwantini), and Zambia had higher concerns than other SSAfrica countries with people feeling “harassed or experiencing violence in the workplace.” Malawi and Zambia rated highest within this group at 47 % and 46% respectively. Even though these countries had the highest levels in the region in this category, these challenges were still prevalent in many of the SSAfrica nations surveyed

IV. Looking at the GSPI index, globally, governments in 25% of the 142 countries surveyed were not trusted to provide safe food, water and power. In SSAfrica, the top countries where respondents said they experienced harm from food were Liberia (52%), Cameroon and Mali (42%), Malawi and Guinea (41%), while on harm from water Cameroon (47%), followed by Zambia (45%), Ethiopia, Nigeria, and Zimbabwe (44%) were among the highest.

        a.) Ethiopia also had the highest negative rating at 60% on whether it is “doing a good job on providing safe powerlines,” followed by Liberia and Nigeria at 49%, whereas the world median was 23% (NB: the recent gas and power-related explosions in Nigeria in March, September & October 2020, and January, July & December 2019). The other country that didn’t fare well was Zambia at 47%, while Rwanda came in best in the region and the world at 13%, given that this was well below the world median of 23%.

V. Looking regionally at the data, countries in Southern Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean have some of the world’s highest levels of economic inequality. This can add to worry since most people do not have the resources to change where and how they live. It has been widely reported by the World Bank and IMF for almost a decade now, and FEEEDS has highlighted this often, that South Africa, not just in the region but in the world, has one of the highest levels of both income inequality and income distribution. Today this is further exacerbated by a 23% unemployment rate as of third quarter 2020 (mostly as a result of closing businesses), down from 30% in first quarter 2020, when COVID hit the country.

Click here to see links to the resources and data used for this article on the Gallup-Lloyd’s Register Foundation Worry, Experience Harm/Risk & GSPI indices and the implications for SSAfrica, with related issues.

Article also reposted onCouncil on Foreign Relations:  & The American College of National Security Leaders website under Member Highlights:  

About the author of this article: Dr. Sanders FEEEDS® Advocacy Initiative holds an annual Africa-focused program with Gallup. However, this article was not solicited by Gallup or the Lloyd’s Register Foundation, and represents the analysis done by FEEEDS®. Sanders, who holds a doctorate degree in information systems & communications, served as a senior career U.S. diplomat in such countries as Sudan, Namibia, Republic of Congo (where she was U.S. Ambassador), and as U.S. Ambassador in Nigeria and U.S. representative to ECOWAS during the onset and further growth of Nigeria’s Boko Haram. NB: Key countries such as Democratic Republic of Congo, Angola, and Sudan are not mentioned in the analysis above because those countries were not part of this edition of the World Risk Poll or its indices.

 A FEEEDS Series Blogspot

 

Tuesday, July 21, 2020

Gallup Announces "A 100-Year Commitment to Listen to Black American Voices!"

FEEEDS wishes to both recognize and congratulate Gallup for its "100-Year Commitment to Listen to Black American Voices," which it announced on July 16, 2020. This commitment is part and parcel of Gallup's new Center on Black Voices

As reported on Gallup's site, "This research initiative will be devoted to studying and highlighting the experiences of more than 40 million Black Americans: tracking and reporting on progress on life outcomes and a life well-lived." 

See the links on the new Center on Black Voices and read about its Mission

A FEEEDS Series Blogspot

Saturday, July 18, 2020

Amb. Sanders-GALLUP INVITE: Constance Hamilton, Assistant U.S. Trade Representative for Africa, USTR - Keynote on "Today’s US-Africa Trade Relationship"

INVITE: FEEEDS-Gallup World Poll - July 23, 2020, 10:30am-12pm EDT
Constance Hamilton, Assistant U.S. Trade Representative for Africa-Keynotes on “Today’s US-Africa Trade Relationship," (AfCTA, Kenya Talks, AGOA, SMEs). And, Gallup's Africa Regional Director, Magali Rheault, discusses data on Africa SMEs. Date: July 23, 2020 Times: 1030am-12pm (EDT); 330pm-5:00pm (BST); 3:30pm-5pm (WAT); 5:30pm-7pm (EAT); 4:30pm-6pm (SAST); 8pm-9:30pm (New Delhi). REGISTER BELOW (see press announcement:  https://allafrica.com/stories/202007150002.html)
 
SAVE THE DATE – Virtual Event!

The 7th Annual FEEEDS-GALLUP Africa Forum
With Event Partners  allAfrica.comIDI & ACBC

“Update on Today's US-Africa Trade Relationship:
AfCTA, US-Kenya Talks , AGOA & Role Small Business

KEYNOTE SPEAKER
Assistant U.S. Trade Representative for Africa, Office of the U.S. Trade Representative

FEATURED SPEAKER
Sub-Saharan Africa Regional Director, Gallup World Poll


Program Date: 1030am-12pm (EDT), July 23, 2020

Time Zones: 1030am-12pm (EDT); 330pm-5:00pm (BST); 3:30pm-5pm (WAT); 5:30pm-7pm (EAT); 4:30pm-6pm (SAST); 8pm-9:30pm (New Delhi)

 Co-Hosts
Jon Clifton, Global Managing Partner, Gallup World Poll (Welcome)
Greetings from Event Partners

Annual Forum’s Objective: Highlight Africa topics with dialogue & data             
See above hyperlinks for bios & websites


A FEEEDS Blogspot

Wednesday, June 24, 2020

Tuesday, June 16, 2020

Ambassador Sanders Signs on to Letter Against U.S. Military Force on Civilains with 500+ Former Senior U.S. Officials

First published on June 5, 2020. Most recent update: June 11, 2020 at 6:09 p.m. ET by https://www.justsecurity.org/70608/the-strength-of-americas-apolitical-military/

          The below statement by former U.S. Ambassadors, Military Officers, Senior Officials Retired members of the U.S. diplomatic corps, many of whom had seen first-hand in non-democratic countries the use of the military as a tool to suppress public protest, were alarmed this week at what seemed steps in that direction on the streets of Washington. 
          The following letter expresses their concern at such measures and their support for the U.S. military’s proud tradition of staying outside of politics. It is addressed to national, state, and local leaders, and has been endorsed by 599 former officials from the diplomatic, military, and other services, as listed below. The letter follows below in alpha order of last names of former Ambassadors, Military Generals, and other former US senior officials:
The Strength of America’s Apolitical Military

The United States is passing through a period unlike any our country has experienced before. Our population, our society, and our economy have been devastated by the pandemic and the resulting depression-level unemployment. We deplore the brutal killing of George Floyd by police officers in Minneapolis which has provoked more widespread protests than the United States has seen in decades. As former American ambassadors, generals and admirals, and senior federal officials, we are alarmed by calls from the President and some political leaders for the use of U.S. military personnel to end legitimate protests in cities and towns across America. Many of us served across the globe, including in war zones, diplomats and military officers working side by side to advance American interests and values. We called out violations of human rights and the authoritarian regimes that deployed their military against their own citizens.

Our values define us as a nation and as a global leader. The professionalism and political neutrality of the U.S. military have been examples for people around the world who aspire to greater freedom and democracy in their own societies. They are among our nation’s greatest assets in protecting Americans and asserting American interests across the globe. Cities and neighborhoods in which Americans are assembling peacefully, speaking freely, and seeking redress of their grievances are not “battlespaces.” Federal, state, and local officials must never seek to “dominate” those exercising their First Amendment rights. Rather they have a responsibility to ensure that peaceful protest can take place safely as well as to protect those taking part. We condemn all criminal acts against persons and property, but cannot agree that responding to these acts is beyond the capabilities of local and state authorities. Our military is composed of and represents all of America.

Misuse of the military for political purposes would weaken the fabric of our democracy, denigrate those who serve in uniform to protect and defend the Constitution, and undermine our nation’s strength abroad. There is no role for the U.S. military in dealing with American citizens exercising their constitutional right to free speech, however uncomfortable that speech may be for some. We are concerned about the use of U.S. military assets to intimidate and break up peaceful protestors in Washington, D.C. Using the rotor wash of helicopters flying at low altitude to disperse protestors is reckless and unnecessary. The stationing of D.C. Air National Guard troops in full battle armor on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial is inflammatory and risks sullying the reputation of our men and women in uniform in the eyes of their fellow

Americans and of the world. Declaring peaceful protestors “thugs” and “terrorists” and falsely seeking to divide Americans into those who support “law and order” and those who do not will not end the demonstrations. The deployment of military forces against American citizens exercising their constitutional rights will not heal the divides in our society. We urge the President and state and local governments to focus their efforts on uniting the country and supporting reforms to ensure equal police treatment of all citizens, regardless of race or ethnicity. Ultimately, the issues that have driven the protests cannot be addressed by our military. They must be resolved through political processes.


A
Anne H. Aarnes Senior Foreign Service Officer, USAID (ret) Gina Abercrombie-Winstanley Ambassador (ret) Edward Abington Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Jonathan S. Addleton Ambassador, USAID (ret) Terry Adirim Former Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense James A. Adkins MG, US Army (ret) Cynthia H. Akuetteh Ambassador (ret) Karl P. Albrecht Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Leslie Alexander Ambassador (ret) Javed Ali Former Senior Director, National Security Council Craig Allen Ambassador (ret) Jay Anania Ambassador (ret) Claudia E. Anyaso Senior Foreign Service (ret) Ricardo Aponte Brigadier General, USAF (ret) Richard H. Appleton Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Hilda Arellano Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Raymond Arnaudo Senior State Department Official (ret) Kirk Augustine Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Liliana Ayalde Ambassador (ret) Alyssa Ayres Former Deputy Assistant Secretary of State Daniel

B
Baer Ambassador (ret) Gary G. Bagley Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Jess L. Baily Ambassador (ret) Tom Baltazar Senior Executive Service, USAID (ret) Robert C. Barber Ambassador (ret) Donna Barbisch Major General, USA (ret) Denise Campbell Bauer Ambassador (ret) James A. Beaver Senior Foreign Service Officer, USAID (ret) Frederick Becker Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Robert Mason Beecroft Ambassador (ret) Rand Beers Former Deputy Assistant to the President Colleen Bell Ambassador (ret) William Bellamy Ambassador (ret) Daniel Benjamin Ambassador (ret) Eric D Benjaminson Ambassador (ret) John E. Bennett United States Ambassador (ret) Virginia L. Bennett Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Jenna Ben-Yehuda Former Senior Military Advisor, Department of State Rob Berschinski Former Deputy Assistant Secretary of State James Bever Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) John Beyrle Ambassador (ret) J.D. Bindenagel Ambassador (ret) Jack R. Binns Ambassador (ret) James Keogh Bishop Ambassador (ret) Rebecca Black Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Stephen J. Blake Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Ronald R. Blanck Lieutenant General (ret) Beryl Blecher Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Peter W. Bodde Ambassador (ret) Barbara Bodine Ambassador (ret) Michael A. Boorstein Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Michele Thoren Bond Ambassador (ret) Eric J. Boswell Ambassador (ret) Paul L. Boyd Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Spencer P. Boyer Former Deputy Assistant Secretary of State Aurelia E. Brazeal Ambassador (ret) Pamela Bridgewater Ambassador (ret) Ken Brill Ambassador (ret) Carol Moseley Braun Ambassador (ret) Philip J. Breeden, Jr. Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Peter S. Bridges Ambassador (ret) Dolores Marie Brown Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Gordon S. Brown Ambassador (ret) Sue K. Brown Ambassador (ret) Steven A. Browning Ambassador (ret) Lee Anthony Brudvig Senior Foreign Service (ret) Judith L. Bryan Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Todd Buchwald Ambassador (ret) Craig Buck Senior Foreign Service Officer, USAID (ret) David P. Burford Major General, USA (ret) Sandy M. Burkholder Senior Foreign Service (ret) Peter Burleigh Ambassador (ret) Nicholas Burns Ambassador (ret) William J. Burns Ambassador (ret) Former Deputy Secretary of State Prudence Bushnell Ambassador (ret) Patricia A. Butenis Ambassador (ret) Michael A. Butler Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret)


C
Anne Callaghan Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Robert J. Callahan Ambassador (ret) Beatrice Camp Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Donald M. Campbell, Jr. Lieutenant General, US Army (ret) Piper A. W. Campbell Ambassador (ret) Glenn L. Carle Former Deputy National Intelligence Officer, CIA Lisa M. Carle Senior Foreign Service (ret) George Carner Senior Foreign Service Officer, USAID (ret) James Carouso Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Steven A. Cash Former Intelligence Officer, CIA Ronnie S. Catipon Senior Foreign Service Special Agent (ret) John Caulfied Senior Foreign Service Officer, (ret) Carey Cavanaugh Ambassador (ret) Judith B. Cefkin Ambassador (ret) Robert F. Cekuta Ambassador (ret) Jeffrey R Cellars Senior Foreign Service (ret) Wendy J. Chamberlin Ambassador (ret) Peter R Chaveas Ambassador (ret) Karen L. Christensen Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Gene Christy Ambassador (ret) David A. Cohen Senior Foreign Service, USAID (ret) Herman J. Cohen Ambassador (ret) Maryruth Coleman Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Maura Connelly Ambassador (ret) Elinor Constable Ambassador (ret) Ellen M. Conway Senior Foreign Service (ret) Frances D. Cook Ambassador (ret) Frederick B. Cook Ambassador ret) Suzan Johnson Cook Ambassador (ret) Thomas Countryman Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Cindy Courville Ambassador (ret) Ertharin Cousin Ambassador (ret) Philip E. Coyle III Former Associate Director, Office of Science and Technology Policy, White House Gene A. Cretz Ambassador (ret) Daniel Thomas Crocker Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Christopher D. Crowley Senior Foreign Service Officer, USAID (ret)


D
James Dandridge II Senior Foreign Service (ret) John J. Danilovich Ambassador (ret) Glyn T. Davies Ambassador (ret) John W Davison Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Luis C. deBaca Ambassador (ret) Kimberley J. DeBlauw Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Carleene Dei Senior Foreign Service (ret) Jeffrey DeLaurentis Ambassador (ret) Greg Delawie Ambassador (ret) Christopher W. Dell Ambassador (ret) Anne E. Derse Ambassador (ret) Joseph M. DeThomas Ambassador (ret) Richard T. Devereaux Major General, USAF (ret) James Dickmeyer Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) John Dickson Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Elizabeth L. Dibble Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Dirk Willem Dijkerman Senior Foreign Service Officer, USAID (ret) Anne Chermak Dillen Senior Foreign Service (ret) Robert S. Dillon Ambassador (ret) John Dinger Ambassador (ret) Kathleen A. Doherty Ambassador (ret) Shaun Donnelly Ambassador (ret) John Douglass Brigadier General, USAF (ret) Former Assistant Secretary of the Navy Mary Draper Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Audrey B. Dumentat Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret.) David Dunford Ambassador (ret) Polly Dunford Senior Foreign Service Officer, USAID (ret) Morton R Dworken Senior Foreign Service (ret)


E
Renee M. Earle Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Paul D. Eaton Major General, USA (ret) William A. Eaton Ambassador (ret) Alan W Eastham Ambassador (ret) Luigi Einaudi Ambassador (ret) Harriet L. Elam-Thomas Ambassador (ret) Susan M. Elliott Ambassador (ret) Nancy H. Ely-Raphel Ambassador (ret) Larry Emery Senior Executive Service (ret) Ellen Connor Engels Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Tom Engle Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Andrew Erickson Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) John M. Evans Ambassador (ret) John Ewers Major General, US Marine Corps (ret)


F
Kenneth Fairfax Ambassador (ret) John Feeley Ambassador (ret) Gerald M. Feierstein Ambassador (ret) Lee Feinstein Ambassador (ret) Robert J. Felderman Brigadier General, USA (ret) Dan Feldman Former Special Representative for Afghanistan/Pakistan Jeffrey Feltman Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Judith R. Fergin Ambassador (ret) Jose W. Fernandez Former Assistant Secretary of State for Economic, Energy and Business Affairs Susan F. Fine Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Jon Finer Former Chief of Staff, Department of State Thomas Fingar Former Assistant Secretary of State Mark Fitzpatrick former Deputy Assistant Secretary of State Lauri Fitz-Pegado Former Director General, Foreign Commercial Service Stephen J. Flanagan Former Senior Director, National Security Council Paul Folmsbee Ambassador (ret) Jim Foster Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Stephenie Foster Former Counselor, Office of Global Women’s Issues) Anita Friedt Senior Executive Service (ret) Laurie S. Fulton Ambassador (ret) Julie Furuta-Toy Ambassador (ret)


G
James I. Gadsden Ambassador (ret) Larry Garber Senior Foreign Service Officer, USAID (ret) Janet E. Garvey Ambassador (ret) O.P. Garza Ambassador (ret) Walter E. Gaskin Lieutenant General, USMC (ret) Mary Ellen T. Gilroy Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Mark Gitenstein Ambassador (ret) Robert A. Glacel Brigadier General, US Army (ret) Fred S. Glass Rear Admiral, JAGC, USN (ret) Edward W. Gnehm Ambassador (ret) Robert Goldberg Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Christopher E. Goldthwait Ambassador (ret) Rose Gottemoeller former Undersecretary of State Colleen Graffy Former Deputy Assistant Secretary of State Gary A. Grappo Ambassador (ret) Thomas P. Gratto Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Gordon Gray Ambassador (ret) Mary A. Gray Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Thomas F. Gray, Jr Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Ronald Greenberg Senior Foreign Service Officer, USAID (ret) Douglas C. Greene Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Kevin P. Green Vice Admiral, USN (ret) Theresa Grencik Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Ken Gross Ambassador (ret) Charles H. Grover Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Michael Guest Ambassador (ret)


H
Nina Hachigian Ambassador (ret) Anne Hall Ambassador (ret) Danny Hall Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Suneta L. Halliburton Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Pamela Hamamoto Ambassador (ret) John R. Hamilton Ambassador (ret) William P. Hammink Senior Foreign Service Officer, USAID (ret) David Harden Senior Foreign Service Officer, USAID (ret) Robert A. Harding Major General, USA (ret) Keith M. Harper Ambassador (ret) Grant T. Harris former senior director, National Security Council Douglas A. Hartwick Ambassador, (ret) Patricia M. Haslach Ambassador (ret) William J. Haugh Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Patricia M. Hawkins Ambassador (ret) John Heffern Ambassador (ret) Samuel D. Heins Ambassador (ret) Douglas Hengel Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Christopher R. Hill Ambassador (ret) William H. Hill Ambassador (ret) Catherine Hill-Herndon Senior Foreign Service (ret) Joseph Hilliard Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Jim E. Hinds Former Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense John L Hirsch Ambassador (ret) Eric L. Hirschhorn Former Undersecretary of Commerce Richard E. Hoagland Ambassador (ret) Heather Hodges Ambassador (ret) Karl Hoffmann Ambassador (ret) Christopher J. Hoh Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Laura S. H. Holgate Ambassador (ret) J. Anthony Holmes Ambassador (ret) James H. Holmes Ambassador (ret) Jim Hooper Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Samuel M. Hoskinson Former Vice Chairman, National Intelligence Council Thomas C. Hubbard Ambassador (ret) Franklin Huddle Ambassador (ret) Vicki J. Huddleston Ambassador (ret) William J. Hudson Ambassador (ret) Arthur H. Hughes Ambassador (ret) Marie T. Huhtala Ambassador (ret) Thomas N. Hull Ambassador (ret) Cameron R. Hume Ambassador (ret) Ravi R. Huso Ambassador (ret)


I
Dorothy Senger Imwold Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Karl F. Inderfurth Former Assistant Secretary of State for South Asian Affairs Ambassador (ret) David R. Irvine Brigadier General, USA (ret)


J
Susan S. Jacobs Ambassador (ret) Tracey Jacobson Ambassador (ret) Jeanine Jackson Ambassador (ret) Jeffrey A. Jacobs MG, US Army (ret) Morris E. “Bud” Jacobs Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Les Janka Former Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense Bonnie Jenkins Ambassador (ret) Charles J. Jess Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Dennis Jett Ambassador (ret) David T. Johnson Ambassador (ret) Karen E. Johnson Senior Foreign Service (ret) Kathy A. Johnson Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Susan R. Johnson Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) L. Craig Johnstone Ambassador (ret) Elizabeth (Beth) Jones Ambassador (ret) Deborah K. Jones Ambassador (ret) James R. Jones Ambassador (ret) Mosina H. Jordan Ambassador (ret) Robert W. Jordan Ambassador (ret)


K
Carol Kalin Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Sid Kaplan Deputy Assistant Secretary of State (ret) Steven Kashkett Senior Foreign Service (ret) Theodore Kattouf Ambassador (ret) Allan J. Katz Ambassador (ret) Richard D. Kauzlarich Ambassador (ret) David J. Keegan Senior Foreign Service (ret) Craig Kelly Ambassador (ret) Ian Kelly Ambassador (ret) Stephen R. Kelly Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Barbara Kennedy Senior Foreign Service (ret) Laura Kennedy Ambassador (ret) Susan Keogh Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) David Killion Ambassador (ret) Scott Kilner Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Lawrence J. Klassen Senior Foreign Service (ret) Hans Klemm Ambassador (ret) Michael Klosson Ambassador (ret) John Koenig Ambassador (ret) Mary Ellen Noonan Koenig Senior Foreign Service (ret) Donald W. Koran Ambassador (ret) Ann K. Korky Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Eleni Kounalakis Ambassador (ret) Lt. Governor of California Roland Kuchel Ambassador (ret) Eric A. Kunsman Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) June H. Kunsman Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Daniel C. Kurtzer Ambassador (ret) Harold Hongju Koh Former Legal Advisor, Department of State Christopher Kojm Former Chairman, National Intelligence Council Jimmy Kolker Ambassador (ret) Karen Kornbluh Ambassador (ret) John C. Kornblum Ambassador (ret) Thomas C. Krajeski Ambassador (ret) David J. Kramer Former Assistant Secretary of State for Democracy, Human Rights and Labor Mary A. Kruger Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Lisa Kubiske Ambassador (ret) Elisabeth Kvitashvili Senior Foreign Service Officer, USAID (ret)


L
Mark P. Lagon Ambassador (ret) Joseph E. Lake Ambassador (ret) David J. Lane Ambassador (ret) Joyce Leader Ambassador (ret) Barbara A. Leaf Ambassador (ret) Richard LeBaron Ambassador (ret) Michael R Lehnert MG, USMC (ret) Michael C. Lemmon Ambassador (ret) Christopher J. Le Mon Former Senior Advisor, National Security Council Steven J. Lepper Major General, USAF (ret) Barry Levin Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Suzi G. LeVine Ambassador (ret) Jeffrey D. Levine Ambassador (ret) Melvin Levitsky Ambassador (ret) Dawn Liberi Ambassador (ret) David C. Litt Ambassador (ret) Hugo Llorens Ambassador (ret) Carmen Lomellin Ambassador (ret) Edward Loo Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Lewis Lukens Ambassador (ret) Douglas Lute Lieutenant General, USA (ret)


M
Ambassador (ret) Buff Mackenzie Senior Foreign Service Officer, USAID (ret) John F. Maisto Ambassador (ret) Deborah R. Malac Ambassador (ret) Eileen A. Malloy Ambassador (ret) Steven R. Mann Ambassador (ret) Randy Manner Major General, USA (ret) Nicholas J. Manring Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Edward Marks Ambassador (ret) Niels Marquardt Ambassador (ret) Dana Marshall Senior Foreign Service (ret) Frederick H. Martin Major General, USAF (ret) Carlos E. Martinez Brigadier General, USAF (ret) Vilma S. Martinez Ambassador (ret) Dennise Mathieu Ambassador (ret) Jack F. Matlock, Jr. Ambassador (ret) R. McBrian Senior Executive Service (ret) Deborah McCarthy Ambassador (ret) Jackson McDonald Ambassador (ret) Nancy McEldowney Ambassador (ret) Stephen G. McFarland Ambassador (ret) Kevin J. McGuire Ambassador (ret) James F. McIlmail Senior Executive Service, Defense Intelligence Agency (ret) John F. McNamara Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Thomas E. McNamara Ambassador (ret) John Medeiros Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Joseph V. Medina Brigadier General, USMC (ret) Thomas O. Melia former Assistant Administrator, USAID James D. Melville Ambassador (ret) James Michel Ambassador (ret) Leo Michel Senior Executive Service, Department of Defense (ret) Kevin Milas Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Richard Miles Ambassador (ret) Katherine J.M. Millard Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Henry Miller-Jones Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Gillian Milovanovic Ambassador (ret) David B. Monk Senior Foreign Service (ret) Alberto Mora Former Navy General Counsel David A. Morris Major General, USA (ret) William J. Mozdzierz Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Kevin J. Mullaly Senior Foreign Service Officer, USAID (ret) Peter F. Mulrean Ambassador (ret) Cameron Munter Ambassador (ret) Allan Mustard Ambassador (ret) Desaix Myers Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret)


N
Larry C. Napper Ambassador (ret) James D. Nealon Ambassador (ret) Richard W. Nelson Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Susan B. Niblock Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Thomas M. T. Niles Ambassador (ret) Brian H. Nilsson Former Deputy Assistant Secretary of State Crystal Nix-Hines Ambassador (ret) Edwin R. Nolan Ambassador (ret) Walter North Ambassador (ret) Suzanne Nossel Former Deputy Assistant Secretary of State


O
Gary Oba Senior Foreign Service (ret) Karen Ogle Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Eric T. Olson MG, US Army (ret) Richard G. Olson Ambassador (ret) Adrienne S. O’Neal Ambassador (ret) Robert M. Orr Ambassador (ret) Ted Osius Ambassador (ret)


P
Susan D. Page Ambassador (ret) Beth S. Paige Senior Foreign Service Officer, USAID (ret) Larry L. Palmer Ambassador (ret) Alexi Panehal Senior Foreign Service Officer, USAID (ret) Maurice Parker Ambassador (ret) Norma Parker Senior Foreign Service (ret) Michael Parmly Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Lynn Pascoe Ambassador (ret) David Passage Ambassador (ret) Robert Pearson Ambassador (ret) Willard J. Pearson Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Edward L. Peck Ambassador (ret) Eric Pelofsky former Senior Director, National Security Council June Carter Perry Ambassador (ret) William Perry Former Secretary of Defense Pete Peterson Ambassador (ret) James D. Pettit Ambassador (ret) Nancy Bikoff Pettit Ambassador (ret) Laurence M Pfeiffer Former Chief of Staff, CIA Annie Pforzheimer Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) John R. Phillips Ambassador (ret) William M. Phillips III Senior Intelligence Officer (ret) Daniel W Piccuta Senior Foreign Service (ret) Thomas R. Pickering Ambassador (ret) Stephen Pifer Ambassador (ret) H. Dean Pittman Ambassador (ret) Joan Plaisted Ambassador (ret) Lynne Platt Senior Foreign Service (ret) Gale S. Pollock Major General, USA, CRNA, FACHE, FAAN (ret) Michael C. Polt Ambassador (ret) Marc Polymeropoulos Senior Intelligence Service, CIA (ret) Karyn Posner-Mullen Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Eric G Postel Former Associate Administrator, USAID Phyllis M. Powers Ambassador (ret) E. Candace Putnam Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret)


Q
Monique Quesada Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret)


R
Azita Raji Ambassador (ret) William C. Ramsay Ambassador (ret) David Rank Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Stephen J. Rapp Ambassador (ret) Scott Rauland Retired SFS officer Charles Ray Ambassador (ret) Evan Reade Consul General (ret) Frankie A. Reed Ambassador (ret) Helen Reed-Rowe Ambassador (ret) Susan Reichle Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Arlene Render Ambassador (ret) Markham K. Rich Rear Admiral, US Navy (ret) Kathleen A. Riley Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Gary D. Robbins Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Thomas B. Robertson Ambassador (ret) Brooks A. Robinson Senior Foreign Service (ret) Harold L. Robinson Rear Admiral, CHC USN (ret) Terri Robl Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Donna G. Roginski Senior Foreign Service (ret) Peter F. Romero Ambassador (ret) Fernando E. Rondon Ambassador (ret) John V. Roos Ambassador (ret) Frank Rose Former Assistant Secretary of State Gerald S. Rose Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Doria Rosen Ambassador (ret) Sara Rosenberry Senior Foreign Service (ret) Christopher W.S. Ross Ambassador (ret) Richard Allan Roth Ambassador (ret) Leslie V. Rowe Ambassador (ret) Stapleton Roy Ambassador (ret) Nancy Rubin Ambassador (ret) Daniel Rubinstein Ambassador (ret) William A. Rugh Ambassador (ret)


S
Melinda D. Sallyards Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) John F. Sammis Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Robin Renee Sanders Ambassador (ret) Janet A. Sanderson Ambassador (ret) Andrew H. Schapiro Ambassador (ret) Richard J. Schmierer Ambassador (ret) James Schumacher Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) John M. Schuster Brigadier General, USA (ret) Teresita C. Schaffer Ambassador (ret) Thomas Schieffer Ambassador (ret) Brenda Brown Schoonover Ambassador (ret) Jill Schuker Former Special Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs Deborah Schwartz Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Eric P. Schwartz Former Assistant Secretary of State Stephen Schwartz Ambassador (ret) John F Scott Senior Foreign Service (ret) Kyle Scott Ambassador (ret) Rick Scott Senior Foreign Service Officer, USAID (ret) Stephen A. Seche Ambassador (ret) Theodore Sedgwick Ambassador (ret) Mark Seibel Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Raymond G.H. Seitz Ambassador (ret) Mike Senko Ambassador (ret) Daniel Serwer Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Thomas A. Shannon, Jr. Ambassador (ret) Daniel Shapiro Ambassador (ret) Mattie R. Sharpless Ambassador (ret) John Shattuck Ambassador (ret) David B. Shear Ambassador (ret) William F. Sheehan Former General Counsel, Department of Defense Sally Shelton-Colby Ambassador (ret) Wendy R. Sherman Former Undersecretary of State for Political Affairs A. Ellen Shippy Ambassador (ret) Sandra Shipshock Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Douglas A. Silliman Ambassador (ret) Lawrence R. Silverman Ambassador (ret) Mark Silverman Senior Foreign Service Officer, USAID (ret) Paul Simons Ambassador (ret) John Sipher CIA Senior Intelligence Service (ret) Kristen B. Skipper Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Thomas F. Skipper Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Emil Skodon Ambassador (ret) Kenneth N Skoug Jr. Senior Foreign Service (ret) Walter Slocombe Former Undersecretary of Defense Dana Shell Smith Ambassador (ret) Paul R. Smith Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Alan Solomont Ambassador (ret) Tara D. Sonenshine Former U.S. Under Secretary of State for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs Daniel Speckhard Ambassador (ret) John Spilsbury Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Madelyn E. Spirnak Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Thomas H. Staal Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Derwood K. Staeben Senior Foreign Service (ret) Sylvia G. Stanfield Ambassador (ret) Karin Clark Stanton Ambassador (ret) Donald K. Steinberg Ambassador, USAID (ret) Monica Stein-Olson Senior Foreign Service Officer, USAID (ret) Andrew Steinfeld Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Barbara Stephenson Ambassador (ret) Kathleen Stephens Ambassador (ret) Richard W. Stites Senior Foreign Service (ret) Cynthia Stroum Ambassador (ret) Arsalan Suleman Former Special Envoy to the Islamic Conference Joseph G. Sullivan Ambassador (ret) Howard J.K. Sumka Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Paul R. Sutphin Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) William L. Swing Ambassador (ret) Christopher J. Szymanski Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret)


T
Strobe Talbott Former Deputy Secretary of State Mary Tarnowka Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Francis Taylor Brigadier General, USAF (ret) Former DHS Under Secretary Paul D. Taylor Ambassador (ret) Richard W. Teare Ambassador (ret) Mary Jane Teirlynck Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Mark Tesone Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Patrick H. Theros Ambassador (ret) Harry Thomas Ambassador (ret) Daphne Michelle Titus Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Mark Tokola Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Kurt W. Tong Ambassador (ret) Gregory F. Treverton Former Chair, National Intelligence Council Michael S. Tulley Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Andrew Turley Major General, USAF (ret) Robert H. Tuttle Ambassador (ret)


V
Michael H. Van Dusen Senior Congressional Committee Staff Member (ret) Alan Van Egmond Senior Foreign Service Officer, USAID (ret) Elizabeth Verville Former Deputy Assistant Secretary of State Alexander Vershbow Ambassador (ret) Melanne Verveer Ambassador (ret) Philip L. Verveer Former Deputy Assistant Secretary of State Shari Villarosa Ambassador (ret)


W
David G. Wagner Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Marcelle M. Wahba Ambassador (ret) Edward S. Walker Ambassador (ret) Howard K. Walker Ambassador (ret) Jenonne Walker Ambassador (ret) Jake Walles Ambassador (ret) Mark S. Ward Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Mary Burce Warlick Ambassador (ret) John Warner Senior Foreign Service (ret) Thomas S. Warrick Former Deputy Assistant Secretary, Department of Homeland Security Alexander F. Watson Ambassador (ret) Linda E. Watt Ambassador (ret) Earl Anthony Wayne Ambassador (ret) Janice M. Weber Senior Foreign Service Officer, USAID (ret) William Weinstein Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Alice G. Wells Ambassador (ret) Melissa Wells Ambassador (ret) Mark Wentworth Senior Foreign Service (ret) Joseph W. Westphal Ambassador (ret) Former Under Secretary of the Army Bruce Wharton United States Ambassador (ret) Pamela White Ambassador (ret) Thomas J White Senior Foreign Service (ret) Jon A. Wiant Senior Executive Service (ret) Bisa Williams Ambassador (ret) Molly Williamson Senior Foreign Service (ret) Ashley Wills Ambassador (ret) Jonathan M. Winer former Deputy Assistant Secretary of State Timothy E. Wirth Former Undersecretary of State Frank G. Wisner Ambassador (ret) John L. Withers II Ambassador (ret) Tamara Cofman Wittes Former Deputy Assistant Secretary of State John S. Wolf Ambassador (ret) Kevin Wolf Former Assistant Secretary of Commerce David T. Wolfson Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Burke M. Wong Attorney-Advisor, Department of Justice (ret) Mark F. Wong Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Brooks Wrampelmeier Senior Foreign Service (ret)


Y
Kenneth Yalowitz Ambassador (ret) Susumu Ken Yamashita Senior Foreign Service Officer, USAID (ret) John Yates Ambassador (ret) Mary Carlin Yates Ambassador (ret) Frank Young Senior Foreign Service Officer, USAID (ret) Johnny Young Ambassador (ret) Thomas M. Young Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Marie L. Yovanovitch Ambassador (ret) Alan Yu Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Joseph Y. Yun Ambassador (ret)


Z
Uzra Zeya Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Jane Zimmerman Senior Foreign Service Officer (ret) Peter D. Zimmerman Senior Executive Service (ret) James Zumwalt Ambassador (ret) Peter B. Zwack Brigadier General, US Army (ret) David Zweifel Ambassador (ret)